Banda district, a part of Chitrakoot division is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Banda town. The two tehsils of Banda district namely Karwi and Mau were separated from it and joined the newly formed Chitrakoot district in 1998. During the period of British rule Banda was declared as a town and district in the Allahabad division of the United Provinces. Previously, it was a military cantonment. At that time there was a famous royal family in Bundelkhand popularly known as Rai Bahadur Raiyse, Pt Mannulal Awasthi (183 villages). Under the British India till 1947 the Rai Bahadur Pt Mannulal Awasthi family possessed more than half of the Banda district. In the year 1858 Banda district was emerged as a separate district in the map of Uttar Pradesh.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°48'N latitude, 80°33'E longitude and 450 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 2.31% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,408 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the rank of 16th in state and 264th in India. It is bounded by Fatehpur district on the north, Madhya Pradesh on the south, Chitrakoot district on the east and Hamirpur district on the west. The prominent river that passes through the district is Yamuna river. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer and fairly cold during the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 886.1 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 tehsils likewise Banda, Naraini, Baberu, Atarra and Pailani. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 8 towns and 694 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 17,99,410 including 9,65,876 are males and 8,33,534 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 863 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 17.05% out of which 16.86% were males and 17.27% were females. The population density in the district is 408 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 41,977 including 21,698 were males and 20,279 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,646 out of which 2,082 were males and 1,564 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 91.00% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 98.46%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most the lands in the district are used for agricultural purpose. Yamuna, the principal river of the district and its black soil favours the agricultural products grows in the district. Some of its chief agricultural products are millet, food grains, rice, cotton, oil seeds, barley, different types of pulses, peas, linseed, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialized. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Banda as one of the country's 250 most backward districts that is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 14,19,124 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 10,84,786 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 12,18,026 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 9,22,357 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 60,196 at Current Price and Rs. 45,584 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district has several Sanskrit Pathshalas (schools) and all of which are affiliated to the most recognised Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwa Vidyalaya at Varanasi. These institutes impart education in Sanskrit literature on Vyakarana (grammar) and other areas. There are also some other reputed educational institutions in the district such as Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Degree College, Adarsh Bajrang Inter College, Government Inter College, Saraswati Vidya Mandir Inter College, Raja Devi Degree College, B.P.M.P. Omer Inter College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 66.67% out of which 77.78% are males and 53.67% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 10,02,937 including 6,30,626 are males and 3,72,311 are females.
Ram Sajeevan, a distinguished Indian politician and a member of 9th, 11th and 13th Lok Sabha from the Banda constituency was born on 2nd January, 1929 at Sonepur village in the district. He is a member of Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP).
During the year 2021, there were 4,19,139 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. Every year numerous travellers from different parts of the country as well as world come to this place to enjoy its centres of attraction with historical and religious significance. Bamdeo temple is named after the prominent Bamdeo Rishi, a sage mentioned in Hindu mythology as a contemporary of Lord Rama. The temple has the oldest and a very big Shivaling. Maheshwari Devi Temple is located at the centre of Banda city. Pilgrims from far distance place come to this temple to offer their prayers. Kalinjar Fort is one of the eight famous forts built by Chandela kings situated in the Banda District. Bhuragarh Fort was built by Raja Guman Singh in 17th Century by using brown stones across the Ken River. 'Natbali Ka Mela', a popular mela organized in this place every year. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Rangarh Fort, Nawab Tank, Four Stone Pillar at Kairada village, Khatri Pahar, St. George's Church (Yellow Church), etc.